Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome 2 (IGS2), also known as selective vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria, is a rare inherited genetic disorder that affects the absorption of vitamin B12 in the gastrointestinal tract. This condition is characterized by impaired uptake of vitamin B12 from the diet, leading to vitamin B12 deficiency. IGS2 is one of several forms of Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome, with IGS1 being another variant.
Key features and characteristics of IGS2 include:
1. Inherited Genetic Disorder: IGS2 is a hereditary disorder, typically inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning both parents carry a mutation in the responsible gene. The specific gene associated with IGS2 is called AMN (Amnionless).
2. Impaired Vitamin B12 Absorption: In individuals with IGS2, there is a deficiency or dysfunction of the AMN protein, which plays a crucial role in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum, a part of the small intestine. As a result, vitamin B12 cannot be effectively absorbed from the diet, even if it is present in sufficient quantities in the person's food.
3. Symptoms: The hallmark symptom of IGS2 is vitamin B12 deficiency. Common clinical manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency include anemia, fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and neurological symptoms such as numbness and tingling in the extremities. Untreated, vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to serious health complications.
4. Proteinuria: A distinguishing feature of IGS2 is the presence of proteinuria, which is the abnormal excretion of proteins in the urine. The exact mechanism linking vitamin B12 malabsorption and proteinuria is not fully understood.
5. Dietary Considerations: Treatment for IGS2 typically involves lifelong vitamin B12 supplementation, often via regular injections. While the body cannot effectively absorb dietary vitamin B12, supplementation bypasses the absorption defect and provides the necessary vitamin B12 to prevent deficiency-related complications.
6. Genetic Testing: IGS2 can be diagnosed through genetic testing, which can identify mutations in the AMN gene responsible for the condition.
7. Long-Term Management: With appropriate treatment and vitamin B12 supplementation, individuals with IGS2 can lead normal, healthy lives. It's crucial to continue monitoring vitamin B12 levels and overall health in consultation with healthcare professionals.
Since IGS2 is a genetic disorder, individuals with a family history of the condition may consider genetic counseling to assess the risk of passing the gene mutation to their children. Early diagnosis and appropriate management are essential for preventing the complications associated with vitamin B12 deficiency and proteinuria in individuals with IGS2.
|Affected: Dog has two copies of IGS mutation and will be affected. The gene will be passed to every offspring.
|Carrier: Dog has one copy of the IGS mutation. The dog is not affected by IGS but may pass the gene to offspring.
|Clear: Dog is negative for the mutation associated with IGS.