Turn around: 3-5 days
Parentage testing is based on the principle of exclusion, that is, a DNA profile of an offspring is compared to that of its parents and if matches can not be made the parent is excluded, however if matches are made, at each DNA marker evaluated, then the parent is said to qualify. A DNA profile—which provides information for several genetic markers—is obtained, and parentage analysis is performed. A variety of sample types can be utilized for routine testing, including blood, hair, semen, buccal swabs, and FTA cards. Non-routine sample types include bone, teeth, saliva, dried blood, urine, and feces. DNA is extracted from the samples, and the process of establishing a DNA profile begins with the PCR procedure. After which, the DNA profile of the offspring is compared to those of the presumed parents. A parentage specialist analyzes and reviews the results, performs several quality control experiments, and sends the final report. If a listed parent or parents are initially excluded, additional analysis is performed including retesting of samples and the possible use of additional DNA markers to confirm the exclusion.